… how long oh LORD?…

When Jesus saw the crowds, he went up on a hill and sat down. His followers came to him, and he began to teach them, saying:
“They are blessed who realize their spiritual poverty,
for the kingdom of heaven belongs to them.
They are blessed who grieve,
for God will comfort them.
They are blessed who are humble,
for the whole earth will be theirs.
They are blessed who hunger and thirst after justice,
for they will be satisfied.
They are blessed who show mercy to others,
for God will show mercy to them.
They are blessed whose thoughts are pure,
for they will see God.
They are blessed who work for peace,
for they will be called God’s children.
They are blessed who are persecuted for doing good,
for the kingdom of heaven belongs to them.
“People will insult you and hurt you. They will lie and say all kinds of evil things about you because you follow me. But when they do, you will be blessed. Rejoice and be glad, because you have a great reward waiting for you in heaven. People did the same evil things to the prophets who lived before you.

(Matthew 5:1–12, NCV)

θλῖψις μεγάλη …
great affliction … great tribulation..

“ἔσονται γὰρ αἱ ἡμέραι ἐκεῖναι θλῖψις οἵα οὐ γέγονεν τοιαύτη ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς κτίσεως ἣν ἔκτισεν ὁ θεὸς ἕως τοῦ νῦν καὶ οὐ μὴ γένηται.” (Mark 13:19, SBLGNT)

“For in those days there will be such tribulation as has not been from the beginning of the creation that God created until now, and never will be.” (Mark 13:19, ESV)


“καὶ κατὰ τὴν ὥραν ἐκείνην παρελεύσεται Μιχαηλ ὁ ἄγγελος ὁ μέγας ὁ ἑστηκὼς ἐπὶ τοὺςυἱοὺς τοῦ λαοῦ σου, ἐκείνηἡ ἡμέρα θλίψεως, οἵα οὐκ ἐγενήθη ἀφʼ οὗ ἐγενήθησαν ἕως τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης, καὶ ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὑψωθήσεται πᾶς ὁ λαός, ὃς ἂνεὑρεθῇ ἐγγεγραμμένος ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ.”(Daniel 12:1, LLXXI)

“And at that time Michael the great prince shall stand up, that stands over the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of tribulation, such tribulation as has not been from the time that there was a nation on the earth until that time: at that time thy people shall be delivered, even every one that is written in the book.” (Daniel 12:1, Brenton LXX En)


“ἔσται γὰρ τότε θλῖψις μεγάλη οἵα οὐ γέγονεν ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς κόσμου ἕως τοῦ νῦν οὐδʼ οὐ μὴ γένηται.” (Matthew 24:21, SBLGNT)

“For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, and never will be.” (Matthew 24:21, ESV)


“καὶ ζητήσετε ἐκεῖ Κύριον τὸν θεὸν ἡμῶν, καὶ εὑρήσετε, ὅταν ἐκζητήσητε αὐτὸν ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου ἐν τῇ θλίψει σου· (Deuteronomy 4:29, Lexham LXX Int Swete)

“But from there you will seek the Lord your God and you will find him, if you search after him with all your heart and with all your soul. When you are in tribulation, and all these things come upon you in the latter days, you will return to the Lord your God and obey his voice. For the Lord your God is a merciful God. He will not leave you or destroy you or forget the covenant with your fathers that he swore to them.” (Deuteronomy 4:29–31, ESV)


“καὶ εἴρηκα αὐτῷ· Κύριέ μου, σὺ οἶδας. καὶ εἶπέν μοι· Οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐρχόμενοι ἐκ τῆς θλίψεως τῆς μεγάλης, καὶ ἔπλυναν τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶν καὶ ἐλεύκαναν αὐτὰς ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ ἀρνίου.” (Revelation 7:14, SBLGNT)

“I said to him, “Sir, you know.” And he said to me, “These are the ones coming out of the great tribulation. They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.” (Revelation 7:14, ESV)


“καὶ ἐγένετο θλῖψις μεγάλη ἐν τῷ Ισραηλ, ἥτις οὐκ ἐγένετο ἀφʼ ἧς ἡμέρας οὐκ ὤφθη προφήτης αὐτοῖς.” (1 Maccabees 9:27, LLXXI)

“So was there a great affliction in Israel, the like whereof was not since the time that a prophet was not seen among them.” (1 Maccabees 9:27, Brenton LXX En)


“ταῦτα λελάληκα ὑμῖν ἵνα ἐν ἐμοὶ εἰρήνην ἔχητε· ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ θλῖψιν ἔχετε, ἀλλὰ θαρσεῖτε, ἐγὼ νενίκηκα τὸν κόσμον.” (John 16:33, SBLGNT)

“I have said these things to you, that in me you may have peace. In the world you will have tribulation. But take heart; I have overcome the world.”” (John 16:33, ESV)


θλῖψις, εως, (s. θλίβω; on the accent s. B-D-F §13; W-S. §6, 3c; Mlt-H. 57.—KLipsius, Grammat. Untersuchungen über d. bibl. Gräz. 1863, 34f, prefers to write θλίψις; so also W-H.) rare in extra-Biblical Gk., and there lit., ‘pressing, pressure’ (Aristot., Meterol. 4, 4, 383a, 13; Epicurus p. 45, 9 Us.; Ps.-Aristot., De Mundo 4, 394a, 29; Strabo, Galen).

① in our lit. (as in LXX, En, Test12Patr, JosAs cod. A; Just., D. 116, 2; Mel.) freq. and in the metaph. sense trouble that inflicts distress, oppression, affliction, tribulation (so Vett. Val. 71, 16; Cat. Cod. Astr. VIII/3 p. 175, 5; 178, 8; pl. 169, 2 [s. Boll 134f]; OGI 444, 15 [II or I b.c.] διὰ τὰς τ. πόλεων θλίψεις; BGU 1139, 4 [I b.c.]; POxy 939, 13; PAmh 144, 18). Of distress that is brought about by outward circumstances (Jos., Ant. 4, 108; En, PsSol, Mel.; Did., Gen. 116, 10), in sg. and pl. Ac 11:19; Ro 5:3b; 12:12; 2 Cor 1:8; 6:4; 8:2; Rv 1:9; 2:9, 22; 1 Cl 22:7 (Ps 33:18); 59:4; 2 Cl 11:4 (quot. of unknown orig.); Hs 7:4ff. ἐπὶ πάσῃ τῇ θ. ἡμῶν 2 Cor 1:4a; 7:4; 1 Th 3:7; ἐν πάσῃ θ. (TestGad 4:4) 2 Cor 1:4b; ἐν (τ.) θ. Ro 5:3a; Eph 3:13; 1 Th 1:6; 3:3. ἐν πολλαῖς θ. καὶ ποικίλαις Hs 7, 4. θ. μεγάλη great tribulation (SibOr 3, 186) Mt 24:21 (1 Macc 9:27); Ac 7:11; Hv 4, 2, 4. Plural Hv 3, 2, 1. ἡ θ. ἡ μεγάλη the great tribulation Rv 7:14; τὸ ἐλαφρὸν τῆς θ. slight affliction 2 Cor 4:17. ἀνταποδοῦναί τινι θλῖψιν repay someone w. affliction 2 Th 1:6. W. ἀνάγκη (q.v. 2) 1 Th 3:7. W. διωγμός Mt 13:21; Mk 4:17; Ac 8:1 D; 13:50 D; pl. 2 Th 1:4. W. δεσμά (TestJos 2:4) Ac 20:23. W. ὀνειδισμός Hb 10:33. W. στενοχωρία (q.v.) Ro 2:9. W. στενοχωρία and διωγμός 8:35 (w. λιμός and στενοχωρία Hippol., Ref. 5, 26, 12).—On the catalogue of hardships (peristasis) cp. 1 Cor 4:9–13; 2 Cor 4:8f; 6:4–10; 11:23–28; 12:10; Phil 4:11; s. FDanker, Augsburg Comm. 2 Cor ’89, 89–91; 180f; idem, The Endangered Benefactor in Luke-Acts: SBLSP ’81, 39–48; JFitzgerald, Cracks in an Earthen Vessel ’88; MFerrari, Die Sprache des Leids in den paulinischen Persistasen-katalogen ’91; MEbner, Leidenslisten u. Apostelbrief ’91.—ἡμέρα θλίψεως day of affliction (Gen 35:3; 2 Km 22:19; cp. En 103:9; TestLevi 5:5) 1 Cl 52:3 (Ps 49:15).—Of the tribulations of the last days (as Da 12:1) Mt 24:21, 29; Mk 13:19, 24. ἡ θ. ἡ ἐρχομένη ἡ μεγάλη the great tribulation to come Hv 2, 2, 7; cp. 2, 3, 4; 4, 1, 1; 4, 2, 5; 4, 3, 6.—Distress caused by war 1 Cl 57:4 (Pr 1:27). θ. θανάτου affliction of death B 12:5. Difficult circumstances 2 Cor 8:13; Js 1:27; συγκοινωνεῖν τῇ θ. show an interest in (someone’s) distress Phil 4:14. Of a woman’s birth-pangs J 16:21.—ὅταν γένηται θ. when persecution comes Hv 3, 6, 5. θλῖψιν ἀκούειν hear of persecution Hs 9, 21, 3. θλῖψιν ἔχειν J 16:33; 1 Cor 7:28; Rv 2:10; Hv 2, 3, 1; Hs 7:3. ἐὰν ὑπενέγκῃ τὰς θλίψεις τὰς ἐπερχομένας αὐτῷ Hs 7:4; cp. 7:6. ἐξείλατο αὐτὸν ἐκ πασῶν τῶν θλίψεων αὐτοῦ Ac 7:10. διὰ πολλῶν θ. εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τ. βασιλείαν 14:22. τότε παραδώσουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς θλῖψιν Mt 24:9; cp. B 12:5. ἀποστήσεται πᾶσα θ. ἀπὸ σοῦ … ἀπὸ πάντων ἀποστήσεται ἡ θ. Hs 7, 7.—Of the sufferings of Christ θλίψεις τοῦ Χριστοῦ Col 1:24 (s. on ἀνταναπληρόω and πάθημα 1).

inward experience of distress, affliction, trouble (Gen 35:3; 42:21 θ. τῆς ψυχῆς) θ. καὶ συνοχὴ καρδίας trouble and anguish of heart 2 Cor 2:4. θλῖψιν ἐγείρειν τοῖς δεσμοῖς μου cause trouble for me in my imprisonment Phil 1:17. Ἅννα … περιείλατο πᾶσαν θλῖψιν ἀπʼ αὐτῆς GJs 2:4 (cod. A, not pap; s. περιαιρέω 1).—DELG s.v. θλίβω. M-M. TW.

 

B-D-F B-D-F = FBlass, ADebrunner, RFunk, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature—List 6

W-S. W-S. = GWiner, Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Sprachidioms, ed. PSchmiedel—List 6

Mlt-H. Mlt-H. = JMoulton/WHoward, A Grammar of NT Greek II: Accidence and Word-formation—List 6

W-H. W-H. = BWestcott/FHort—List 1, beg.

Gk. Gk. = Greek

lit. lit. = literal(ly); literature (refererences to [scholarly] literature)

Aristot Aristot , various works, IV b.c.—List 5

Epicurus Epicurus , IV–III b.c.—List 5

Ps.-Aristot Ps.-Aristot , s. Aristot.—List 5

Strabo Strabo , I b.c.–I a.d.—List 5

Galen Galen , II a.d.—List 5

lit. lit. = literal(ly); literature (refererences to [scholarly] literature)

LXX LXX = Septuaginta, ed. ARahlfs, unless otherwise specified—Lists 2, beg.

En En = I Enoch—List 2

Test12Patr Test12Patr = Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, with interpolations II b.c.–III a.d.—List 2

JosAs JosAs = Joseph and Aseneth—Lists 2, 5

Just. Just(in) , II a.d.—List 5

D D = Didache, except that in a list of manuscripts or as textual variant D refers to Codex Bezae—List 1

Mel. Mel. = Melito of Sardis, II a.d.—List 5

freq. freq. = frequent(ly)

metaph. metaph. = metaphor(ically)

  1. pl. = plural

Boll Boll = FB., Aus der Offenb. Johannis—List 6

OGI OGI = Orientis Graeci Inscriptiones Selectae—List 3

BGU BGU = Aegyptische Urkunden aus den Museen zu Berlin: Griechische Urkunden—List 4

POxy POxy = Oxyrhynchus Papyri—List 4

PAmh PAmh = The Amherst Papyri I–II—List 4

Jos. Jos. = Josephus. This abbr. used when follow by title; I a.d.—Lists 5

En En = I Enoch—List 2

Mel. Mel. = Melito of Sardis, II a.d.—List 5

Did. Did. = Didymus Caecus (the Blind), commentator on OT books, IV a.d.—List 5

  1. sg. = singular
  2. pl. = plural

1 Cl 1 Cl = 1 Clement—List 1

2 Cl 2 Cl = 2 Clement—List 1

quot. quot. = quotation

orig. orig. = original(ly)

Hs Hs = Similitudes

TestGad TestGad = Testament of Gad, s. Test12Patr—List 2

Hs Hs = Similitudes

SibOr SibOr = Oracula Sibyllina, II–III a.d.—List 5

Hv Hv = Visions

Hv Hv = Visions

  1. w. = with

q.v. q.v. = quod vide (which see, see that which has just been mentioned)

D D = Didache, except that in a list of manuscripts or as textual variant D refers to Codex Bezae—List 1

D D = Didache, except that in a list of manuscripts or as textual variant D refers to Codex Bezae—List 1

  1. pl. = plural

TestJos TestJos = Testament of Joseph, s. Test12Patr—List 2

q.v. q.v. = quod vide (which see, see that which has just been mentioned)

  1. w. = with

Hippol Hippol , II–III a.d.—List 5

  1. cp. = compare, freq. in ref. to citation fr. ancient texts

idem idem = the same (in ref. to the person just mentioned)

SBLSP SBLSP = Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers—List 6

  1. cp. = compare, freq. in ref. to citation fr. ancient texts

En En = I Enoch—List 2

TestLevi TestLevi = Testament of Levi, s. Test12Patr—List 2

1 Cl 1 Cl = 1 Clement—List 1

Hv Hv = Visions

  1. cp. = compare, freq. in ref. to citation fr. ancient texts

1 Cl 1 Cl = 1 Clement—List 1

B B = Barnabas (the Letter of), II a.d., except in series of uncial witnesses, in which case B refers to Codex Vaticanus (s. also Vat.). When the abbrv. B would ambiguous, Vat. is used for the codex.—List 1

Hv Hv = Visions

Hs Hs = Similitudes

Hv Hv = Visions

Hs Hs = Similitudes

Hs Hs = Similitudes

  1. cp. = compare, freq. in ref. to citation fr. ancient texts
  2. cp. = compare, freq. in ref. to citation fr. ancient texts

B B = Barnabas (the Letter of), II a.d., except in series of uncial witnesses, in which case B refers to Codex Vaticanus (s. also Vat.). When the abbrv. B would ambiguous, Vat. is used for the codex.—List 1

Hs Hs = Similitudes

GJs GJs = Gospel of James (Protevangelium Jacobi), II a.d.—List 1

pap pap = papyrus, -yri

DELG DELG = PChantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque—List 6

s.v. s.v. = sub voce (under the word, look up the word)

M-M M-M = JMoulton/GMilligan, Vocabulary of Greek Testament—Lists 4, 6

TW TW = Theologisches Wörterbuch zum NT; tr. GBromiley, Theological Dictionary of the NT—List 6

 

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Author: orland

.. i was born into an average family in the mid-west of the United States of America. my parents were divorced when i was young. ... i have been fortunate to have experienced many things that only the rich get to see. i once stayed in the Presidential Suite of the Lai Lai Sheraton Hotel, in Taipei, Taiwan. this suite composed the top two floors of the Lai Lai, where my private room overlooked the city of Taipai. ... and i have spent time in the Federal Prison System of this country as well. ... i had a construction company on the road to 'success and prosperity' and fell pray to the lures of the American Christianity Syndrome. but thank the good LORD, He allowed it all to crash around me. ... now i am quite happy to be poor, relying only on Him ....